At a basic level, computers only operate with numbers. Even within application programs in high-level languages, there are many numbers and operations internally. Fortunately, to get started it is enough to know the usual arithmetic. We will have a look at the various arithmetic operators in Python programming language.

Table of Contents

**Arithmetic Operations & Arithmetic Operators in Python**

Before delving further into operations in Python, we must understand about operators and operands, What are operator and operands? This can be explained by a simple example:

`10 + 5 = 15`

In this expression, 10 and 5 are operands. The “+” sign is an operator. We process the operands along with the operators to obtain the end result value.

**What operators are used to perform calculations in Python?**

The Python language has a number of mathematical (arithmetic) operators for performing calculations in arithmetic expressions. The list of these operations in descending order of priority is as follows:

******– exponentiation**–X**– unary minus**/**,**//**– regular division, division with rounding down (same priority)**%**Is the remainder of the division operation*****– multiplication**–**– subtraction**+**– addition

**Addition**

```
g = 10
h = 15
print (g + h)
```

**Output**:
25

**Subtraction**

```
g = 75
h = 15
print (g - h)
```

**Output**:
60

**Multiplication**

```
k = 100
l = 10
print (k * l)
```

**Output**:
1000

**Division**

When you do a direct division using (/) operator in Python 3, the quotient will always be a floating point number, even if you are using two integers:

```
m = 80
n = 5
print (m / n)
```

**Output**:
16.0

Using (//) operator we get an integral output.

```
m = 80
n = 5
print (m // n)
```

**Output**:
16

**Modulus**

The % operator is used for modulo division, and returns the** remainder of the division**, **not the quotient**. This is useful, for example, to find the factors of a number.

```
o = 85
p = 15
print (o% p)
```

**Output**:
10

**Exponentiation**

The “**” operator in Python is used to raise the number on the left of the operator to the power on the right. That is, in the expression 5 ** 3, the number 5 is raised to the third power. In mathematics, the expression 5³ is often used. That is, 5 is multiplied by itself three times. In Python, we get the same result (125) by doing 5 ** 3 or 5 * 5 * 5.

```
s = 5
t = 3
print (s ** t)
```

**Output**:
125

Let us look at an example involving these operations in the Python programming language,

```
print("Python program to demonstrate various Arithmetic Operations")
print(8 + 2)
print(8 - 2)
print(8 * 2)
print(8 / 2)
print(8.23 // 2)
print(8 ** 2)
print(8 % 2)
```

**Output:**
Python program to demonstrate various Arithmetic Operations
10
6
16
4.0
4.0
64
0

To understand the Python precedence of operators, let us look at an example:

```
number = 3 + 4 * 6 ** 2 + 7
print(number)
```

**Output:**
154

Here, at the beginning, exponentiation (6 ** 2) is performed as an operation with high priority, then the result is multiplied by 4 (36 * 4), then addition (3 + 144) and then addition (147 + 7) occurs again.

You can use parentheses to redefine the order of operations:

```
number = (3 + 4) * (6 ** 2 + 7)
print(number)
```

**Output**:
301

It should be noted that both integers and fractional numbers can take part in arithmetic operations. If an integer (int) and a floating point number (float) are involved in one operation, then the integer is cast to the float type.

**Assignment Operators in Python**

A number of special operations allow you to use to assign the result of an operation to the first operand:

**+ =**Assigning the result of addition**– =**Assigning the Subtraction Result*** =**Assigning the result of a multiplication**/ =**Assigning the result from division**// =**Assigning the Result of an Integer Division**** =**Assigning a power of a number**% =**Assigning the remainder of a division

```
#Examples of operations:
number = 10
number += 5
print(number)
number -= 3
print(number)
number *= 4
print(number)
```

**Output**:
15
12
48

We have gone through the various arithmetic operators in Python, assignment operators in Python along with various examples. In the next article we will explore the logical operators.